The Sciences en questions collection is geared towards the wider scientific community and for readers interested in epistemology, and includes works covering philosophical, historical, anthropological, sociological or ethical aspects of science and scientific operations. This collection is directed by Raphaël Larrère et Catherine Donnars.
This book discusses how living resources are protected legally in France. It starts by tracing the history of intellectual rights and conditions for patenting inventions. It then focuses on how the processing industries have become interested in living organisms (from seeds to biotechnologies). Lastly, it looks into how the public authorities have intervened in the legal process, thus creating piece-meal systems on the right of living organisms.
Que signifie l'épreuve du labyrinthe pour un rat ? Le fait de chercher à comprendre le point de vue des animaux pourrait inciter les chercheurs à modifier leurs pratiques.
L'évaluation est à la base des nouvelles méthodes de management et d'organisation du travail mais aussi source de difficultés théoriques et techniques. Est-il possible de dégager les principes d'une évaluation rationnelle de l'activité humaine ?
Philippe Descola propose ici une écologie des relations entre humains et non humains : c'est en acceptant de renoncer à son anthropocentrisme que l’anthropologie pourra résoudre les débats toujours recommencés entre déterminismes naturels et culturels.
The author proposes a critical reflection on what he calls involved science. This refers to science which acknowledges its responsibility and is aware of consequences, science that entertains the possibility of questioning its aims and does not invoke axiological neutrality in order to assert its objectivity. Involved science seeks to share knowledge and the power stemming from that knowledge. The author takes on the challenge of providing science with a new democratic principle which, rather than free it from the social turmoil in which it appears to be entangled, allows it to think in the plural within the depth of its radical involvement in reality.
This work attempts to trace the links between neoliberalism and the restructuring of universities and research institutes. Having observed the numerous crises faced by higher education and research, the author shows how the neoliberal version of economics has been used to alter the means of undertaking and assessing public research, teaching and commitment. He describes the resulting transformations and argues his own position against them in this complex debate. Lastly, having paid particular attention to the ways that have not been taken, he concludes: for whom and why do we need knowledge? What type of future society do we wish?
This book highlights the limits of the ecosystem service approach to measure and assess in monetary terms the ecosystems and how the human race uses them. The author shows how this approach has boosted and multiplied the attempts at monetary evaluation of the biodiversity. Exploiting and then quantifying Nature through monetary assessment are part of a Nature merchandising dynamic with conservation strategies built on market logics.
How can scientists participate in the controversies raised by certain technical developments? By injecting a literary sensitivity into this participation. This is what this work argues. Through illustrations like a poem by Henri Michaux or a statement by a GMO crop destruction campaigner, Yves Citton investigates how scientists can take part in public and civil debates and help to move away from the confrontation of disciplines, fields and opinions.
How, since 2006 when the organic law on the finance law entered into force, has the figure become the centrepiece in a way of governing where the political decision is subjected to a logic of result? The author wonders about the current hold of the management evaluation over the definition of the governmental activity. He shows how it makes the democratic practices lose their strength. It addresses the forms of resistance that civil servants and citizens can use to oppose this erosion.
This book exposes the political, organisational and individual consequences of introducing the private sector managerial model into public scientific research:search for the results, progress on merit, management per project, evaluating obsession. What are the paradigms underlying this new public management? How can we analyse the psychological, ideological and organisational effects of these managerial practices? How can we act faced with this malaise in the workplace?