The Sciences en questions collection is geared towards the wider scientific community and for readers interested in epistemology, and includes works covering philosophical, historical, anthropological, sociological or ethical aspects of science and scientific operations. This collection is directed by Raphaël Larrère et Catherine Donnars.
How, since 2006 when the organic law on the finance law entered into force, has the figure become the centrepiece in a way of governing where the political decision is subjected to a logic of result? The author wonders about the current hold of the management evaluation over the definition of the governmental activity. He shows how it makes the democratic practices lose their strength. It addresses the forms of resistance that civil servants and citizens can use to oppose this erosion.
This book exposes the political, organisational and individual consequences of introducing the private sector managerial model into public scientific research:search for the results, progress on merit, management per project, evaluating obsession. What are the paradigms underlying this new public management? How can we analyse the psychological, ideological and organisational effects of these managerial practices? How can we act faced with this malaise in the workplace?
Biology recognises two entities where the existence seems to be an immediate given of perception and not a theoretical elaboration or the result of an experimental approach. These first entities are the species and the individual, and biology seeks to explain their genesis and their operation. Firstly, the theory of natural selection explains the evolution of species (phylogeny) and secondly, the theory of genetic programming explains the development of individual organisms (ontogeny). The author believes that this way of dividing biology no longer holds true given the experimental data acquired recently. He is suggesting a new theory called onto-phylogeny which, on the contrary, unifies biology. In this context, the evolution of species and embyronic development result from a single, extended natural selection process.
The author examines the strategies of pseudo-scientific arguments, from negationist creationisms to philosophical creationisms which call on the scientific community to participate in a "quest for meaning". Through the theory of evolution and its appropriation by the public, the book raises the issue of scientificity criteria.
This book covers the creation process and report of the INRA and IFREMER Ethics and Precaution Committee for Agronomic Research Applications (COMEPRA). The speakers describe how questions on ethics relating to life science research (cloning, GMO and medical sector) are taken into account and circulated.
Despite the scientific advances attributed to animal experimentation, it henceforth has to bow to the EU directive of 22/09/2010 which lays down a framework for the use of animals for scientific purposes and marks a new victory for law.
Philippe Descola is suggesting here an ecology of relationships between humans and non-humans: by agreeing to give up its anthropocentrism, anthropology will be able to resolve the debates which keep springing up between natural and cultural determinisms.
This book ponders the new scientific disciplines. What ideology is hidden behind biotechnology, nanotechnology or ecology, these disciplines which arouse fears and hopes for Western modernity?