After a monoculture phase, it is becoming an unavoidable necessity to diversify perennial crops (cocoa, rubber, palm or coconut oil) in humid tropical areas. Why and when should these diversification processes take place? What type of planter is involved? What are the constraints to diversification? How do public policies and private actions interfere? The authors answer these questions through fifteen case studies, mainly located in Africa and South-East Asia, thereby providing a better understanding of the economies of family plantations and their recent changes.
How can cultivated plant biodiversity contribute to the transformation and the "ecologisation" of agriculture in Southern countries? Based on extensive field work in the Southern countries, a great deal of scientific progress is presented in all areas affecting agriculture (agronomy, plant breeding and crop protection, cultivation systems, etc.) in order to intensify the ecological processes in cultivated plots and at the scale of rural landscapes.
The oceans cover over 70% of our planet. They are host to a biodiversity of tremendous wealth. Its preservation is now a global priority featuring in several international conventions and a confirmed objective of European policies and national strategies. Understanding the dynamics and the uses of the marine biodiversity is a genuine scientific challenge. Fourteen international experts have got together and identified five priority research themes to address the problem, based on analysing the state of knowledge.
The olive tree is the emblem of Mediterranean landscapes.This work blends social, biological and technical sciences to recount the story of a tree that has unceasingly alienated man through religion, food, agriculture and the economy. The olive tree is a symbol found in many ancient texts. The authors retrace its origin and its history. Although only of slight economic importance in France, the olive tree is tied to numerous tourist sites in Provence and Languedoc-Roussillon. A science is developing around products, their characterisation, tasting and potential frauds. This book also delves into "Mediterranean" diets, which have olive oil as a component.
This book describes and analyses how the Baka Pygmies changed in Cameroon at the turn of the 1960s with the adoption of agriculture and permanent dwellings. Their move from a hunting and gathering economy to an economy that includes agriculture is an ideal framework for more general reflection on the social dynamics, changes in societies and sustainable development.
Fruit of ten years work in Mali, this book presents an illustrated summary of the ecological functioning of West African arid forests.It uses old climatic episodes, rainfall gradients, the variability in water availability, the action of reliefs and human action to distinguish the essential factors that explain the organisation of these arid landscapes as a mosaic of habitats.
Producer organisations are very numerous and active in the farming modernisation process in southern developing countries. This didactic work analyses the advantage of the partnership with producer organisations, how they can be strengthened and their relations with the environment. The questions are made extremely accessible and are illustrated by numerous examples in the southern countries.
The WTO has a duty to protect the geographical indications that identify a product where the quality, reputation or other set characteristic can basically be attributed to its geographical origin. Champagne, Roquefort, Darjeeling and Basmati are all examples of this. Through a comparative analysis, the book shows how India protects the craft products and ancient varieties that reflect its cultural identity from the threats of globalisation and how the Indian experience throws French and European law into question.
The book traces the history of dessert banana production connected to the technical innovations. Researchers were called on to answer the priority questions from the sector throughout the 20th century: requirements of a product for export, production, high-performing and disease-resistant varieties and production techniques for sustainable development.