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Impacts of plant protection products on biodiversity and ecosystem services

by Sophie Leenhardt (editorial coordination), Laure Mamy (editorial coordination), Stéphane Pesce (editorial coordination), Wilfried Sanchez (editorial coordination)
september 2023
145 x 210 format 174 pages In stock
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As part of the Ecophyto II+ plan, INRAE and Ifremer were in 2020 commissioned to conduct a collective scientific assessment of the impacts of plant protection products on biodiversity and ecosystem services. The results, released in May 2022, confirm that plant protection products contaminate all types of terrestrial and aquatic environments, all of their compartments and most of their organisms. 

Contamination varies according to the distance from the areas where the products are used, principally in agriculture. It causes direct and indirect impacts on ecosystems, notably the decline of populations of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and birds, and the loss of ecosystem functions and services. Different measures can help mitigate contamination and its impacts, with varying degrees of effectiveness depending on the particular combination of measures (regulations, conditions of use of products, etc.).

This assessment identifies research needs, in particular to improve our understanding of dynamic phenomena in a context of multiple environmental stresses. It aims to characterise and predict impacts and to improve the procedures for assessing the risks associated with the use of plant protection products.

This book is targeted at all stakeholders and decision-makers with an interest in the use of plant protection products, whether they are involved in the legal, political, industrial or non-profit sectors, or in research or teaching.

Ce titre est également disponible en français sur notre site : / This book is also available in French on our website:
Impacts des produits phytopharmaceutiques sur la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques

Table of contents




Request for assessment 

CSA principles 

Composition of the expert group 

Sources used 

Analysis framework 

1. Preamble regarding the fragmentation of knowledge

Patchy and heterogeneous nature 

Complementarity of approaches and objects of study 

2. Environmental contamination by PPPs and exposure of organisms 

Proven environmental contamination by a wide range of PPPs 

Transfer dynamics and fate of substances 

Influence of context on exposure dynamics 

Measures for limiting contamination and exposure 

New developments and prospects for characterizing contamination and exposure 

3. Effects on biodiversity 

From exposure to effects, sources of variability in sensitivity to PPPs 

Highlighting the different types of effects 

Effects on the state of biodiversity and its change 

Impacts on ecosystem functions 

Innovations and future directions for the assessment of effects 

4. Consequences for ecosystem services 

Conceptual links between functions and services 

Principal ecosystem services impacted 

Innovations and future prospects regarding ecosystem services 

5. Cross-cutting areas of concern or improvement 

Issues related to the choice of substances

Accumulation phenomena

Reported improvements 

Improvements made, and persistent difficulties on the scientific front

6. Interactions between science and regulation 

Requirements and complexity of PPP regulations 

Available scientific knowledge not being considered 

Disconnection between pre-market and post-market assessment 

Most frequently identified avenues for improvement 


PPP contamination is known to affect all environments

The state of knowledge in the French overseas territories remains highly incomplete 

PPPs contribute to the weakening of biodiversity 

PPPs reduce the capacity to provide ecosystem services 

Impacts are highly dependent on the methods and context of use 

Instruments to partially mitigate the impacts

In non-agricultural areas, a redesign of management methods 

The ambitious objectives of the PPP regulatory framework have not been fully met 

The use of existing knowledge for regulatory purposes needs to be better organised 

Taking better account of the complexity of exposures and effects 

Linking the study of agricultural systems to that of ecosystems 

Acronyms and abbreviations


Selected bibliography 

Working group


More contents


Language(s): English

Publisher: Éditions Quae

Edition: 1st edition

Collection: Matière à débattre et décider

Published: 7 september 2023

Reference Book: 02899

Reference eBook [PDF]: 02899NUM

Reference eBook [ePub]: 02899EPB

EAN13 Book: 9782759237487

EAN13 eBook [PDF]: 9782759237494

EAN13 eBook [ePub]: 9782759237500

Interior: Colour

Format (in mm) Book: 145 x 210

Pages count Book: 174

Pages count eBook [PDF]: 174

Weight (in grammes): 250

Size: 8.9 MB (PDF), 4.42 MB (ePub)


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